Mumbai meri jaan

Saturday, November 18, 2006

Radio Mirchi

In 2000, where the Government formally announced auction of 108 FM frequencies across 40 cities, Entertainment Network (India) Limited won the largest number of licenses, thereby acquiring a national footprint, and becoming the only commercial FM broadcaster present in all 4 Metros, with an exclusive presence in 10 cities.
AND Radio Mirchi was born.Earlier available in the seven cities of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Indore and Ahmedabad, now it is also available in key markets of Bangalore,Hyderabad & Jaipur ,therby taking the tally to 10 stations across India.
It's the largest private FM Radio operator in the country in terms of number of operational stations and revenue.
Though Radio Mirchi FM radio stations are located in diverse regions in India it's been successful in attracting local audiences in each of these markets. This is largely due to a superior understanding of audience preferences, which enables it to provide content customized to the taste, language and culture of the local audience.
A track record of developing creative and innovative content or programming formats has helped Radio Mirchi expand and retain its audience and advertisers. For example, it has exclusively released the music for Hindi films such as 'Hum Tum', 'Salaam Namaste', 'Mangal Pandey' where it enjoyed exclusive rights for FM broadcasting of the music of these films for around two weeks.Our wide and national footprint enables our advertisers to reach the largest number of listeners among private operators in high incomecities and adjoining areas.
Not only did it win millions of listeners through its innovative programming and marketing initiatives, Radio Mirchi also won awards for its successful brand building.

For example, the '983 - Kismat Khol De' Contest won the Gold medal for Best Activity generating Brand Loyalty at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia - 2004, and the Bronze medal for Best Activity generating Brand Awareness and Trial recruitment at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia - 2004.

Future plans also include exploring opportunities to become FM radio broadcasters or content providers in international markets at an appropriate time, either directly or through strategic partnerships or inorganic initiatives.

Company was incorporated under the name of "Entertainment Network (India) Limited" pursuant to a Certificate of Incorporation No. 11-120516 dated June 24, 1999 issued by the Registrar of Companies, Maharashtra.
Pursuant to a resolution passed in the meeting of our Board on June 3, 2000 the Registered Office of our Company was shifted from 22, Ashoka Apartments, Nepean Sea Road, Mumbai - 400 006 to The Times of India Building, Dr. D. N. Road, Mumbai - 400 001. Further vide a resolution passed in the meeting of our Board on May 29, 2003 the Registered Office of our Company was further shifted to 4th, Floor, Matulya Centre, A- Wing, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel (West), Mumbai 400 013.

October 2001
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Indore.
December 2001
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Ahmedabad.
April 2002
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Mumbai.
May 2002
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Pune.
December 2002
Investment by DHHL in our Company.
April 2003
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Delhi.
May 2003
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Kolkata.
May 2003
Launched our radio broadcasting station in Chennai.
October 2005
Reduction of capital and set off of losses against the share capital and the securities premium account.
October 2005
Incorporation of our subsidiary Times Innovative Media Private Limited.
October 2005
Transfer of the 360 Degrees and OOH media businesses from TIML to TIMPL.
October 2005
Purchase of DHHL's shareholding in the Company by BCCL.
February 2006
Initial public offering of 13.2 million equity shares of Rupees 10 each at the premium of Rupees 152
April 2006
Launched our radio broadcasting stations in Banglore, Jaipur and Hyderabad

Friday, November 17, 2006

Mumbai Food

Click here to view some of the most favourite delicious meal of Mumbai

Thursday, November 16, 2006

Clarificatory Order

Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC) has issued clarifications to its Orders issued on October 3, 2006.
The link for ‘Clarification Order' issued by MERC is enclosed herewith, for your ready reference. Please feel free to contact our 24x7 Power Helpline on 3030 3030 for any further queries or clarifications. The detailed Order is also available on MERC website -
Regards, Reliance Energy Ltd.

Sri Malang Gad, Haji Malang

Click here to know more

Juhu Aerodrome

Juhu Aerodrome (IATA: N/A, ICAO: VAJJ) located in Mumbai, was India's first civil aviation airport opening in 1932. J. R. D. Tata, the father of aviation in India made India's maiden voyage from Juhu airport to Karachi (later to become Pakistan). The airport served as the city's sole airport till Santacruz airport,now Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport took over in 1958. Santacruz was a Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) base during the war years, 1939-45.
Juhu has one runway (08/26, 3750 ft/1143 m) and is run by the Airports Authority of India. It hosts a flying club with several executive and light aircraft, gliders, and a heliport to ferry Oil and Natural Gas Corporation personnel by Pawan Hans to offshore oil rigs at Bombay High. The airfield is located at Juhu, an upmarket residential suburb of northwest Bombay flanking the city's famed Juhu Beach along the Arabian sea.

Electric Supply

It has been already indicated that the erstwhile Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company started supplying electricity to the city in 1905. Until 1926, the Company had been generating its own electricity for distribution to its consumers. Later, the Tata Electric Companies started supplying electricity to the BEST.The Tata Electric Companies (The Andhra Valley Power Supply Co. The Tata Power Supply Co., The Tata Hydroelectric Power Supply Co.) generated electricity from their reservoirs at Bhira, Bhivpuri and Khopoli in the Western Ghats. A major portion of it was transmitted through 110,000 Volts overhead lines to their Receiving Stations at Dharavi and Parel. In these Receiving Stations the voltage used to be transformed to 22,000 and 6,600 volts for ease of distribution. The Tata Electric Companies provided, through their cables, electricity at requisite voltage to the industries and mills, the Railways, the Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Company and the BEST.
In 1947, when the Company was taken over by the Municipal Corporation, the Undertaking was buying electricity from Tatas at nine receiving points known as : Kussara, Mahim, Kingsway, Jamnadas, Suparibag, Lalbaug, Esplanade, Palton and Backbay. At all these points, except Kussara, Kingsway and Mahim, the supply was received at 6,600 Volts. The supply was received at 22,000 Volts and transformed through Tatas’ transformers to 5,500 Volts at Kussara and to 6,600 Volts at Kingsway and Mahim. From these receiving points the cable network carried power to 247 Substations situated in different areas of the city. With the help of transformers at these substations, the voltage was further transformed to 400/230 Volts, suitable for use in the factory, shop and home. It was made available to the consumers through a low voltage distribution network and service cables to individual buildings. The major portion of electricity distributed was at Alternating Current (A.C.). But, in some areas of South Bombay, particularly Fort, Kalbadevi and Girgaum, Direct Current (D.C.) was supplied at a voltage of 460/230 Volts. To convert it into D.C., Rotary Converters were operated at Pathakwadi, Telwadi, Apollo and Palton Road Substations and Mercury Arc Rectifiers were used at Phirozshah Mehta Road substation.
Soon after the Corporation took over the Company, India got its freedom. This meant a reconsideration of the major objectives of the Undertaking and a reorientation of its outlook in the context of the changing political situation. The Second World War had also given a new impetus to the utilisation of electricity.
The Undertaking not only continued many of the healthy traditions set by the Company but also improved its methods of working. The Undertaking is now well known in India for its service of providing electricity with minimum interruptions and at proper voltage, at the minimum cost. It is also known for the quick restoration of supply in the event of any faults developing in the distribution system.
In the fifty years since municipalisation, the maximum demand on the system has risen from 53,000 kilowatts to 6,33,000 kilowatts; the number of substations from 247 to about 1733; the length of underground cables from 1,263 kilometres to 6,966 kilometres; the number of consumers from 1,08,000 to 7,98,152; the number of street lamps from 2,215 to 33,534.
Refrigerators, air-conditioners, geysers, television sets and other electrical appliances are now being extensively used in homes. The use of air-conditioning and better standards of lighting in the office is also becoming increasingly popular. In the factories and entertainment centres the use of electricity is on the increase. Skyscrapers have come into being and so have hutments. All this expansion has necessitated the use of modern and sophisticated equipment. The responsibilities of the electric supply branch of the Undertaking have become correspondingly greater and more complex.
In the days of the BEST Company some parts of the network were supplied at 5,500 Volts and in some other areas the distribution voltage was 6,600 Volts. This non-uniformity led to considerable loss of flexibility. More important, it was realised that at the higher voltage of 6,600 voltage, 20 per cent more electricity could be conveyed and this without major replacement of equipment. So, after elaborate planning, in 1954, the 5,500 Volts system was changed over to 6,600 Volts. This major change was carried out with no interruptions in the supply to consumers.
In 1949 the Undertaking established its first 22000 volts receiving station at Grant Road. This was followed by 22,000 volts receiving station at Apollo. In 1955, two more receiving stations at Kingsway and Kussara were changed over 22,000 volts and all 6600 volts metering points were eliminated. As on today BEST has 35 receiving stations including two 110 KV receiving stations. The demands on the system were growing and further changes were necessary. Under an Agreement with Tatas in 1956, they established a third Receiving Station at Carnac Bunder. This new station and the existing 2 stations at Parel and Dharavi, now became the Undertaking’s only points of supply. The supply was now taken at these 3 points and metered at 22,000 Volts. The Undertaking laid 22 KV cables from these points to it own receiving stations, the voltage was stepped down from 22,000 volts to 6,600 volts through the Undertaking’s own transformers for feeding into its 6,600 Volts system. The elimination of the old 6,600 Volts Receiving Stations was spread over a period of years. It was changed over to 22,000 Volts as and when new Receiving Stations were built by the B.E.S.T. Thus in 1956, the Worli Receiving Station was established at Fergusson Road. This was followed by many Receiving Stations at various places.
To supply electricity at a steady voltage is an important responsibility of the Supply Branch. There are considerable variations in the voltage received from Tatas at the different Receiving Stations. To compensate for these fluctuations, the Undertaking installed, on its 22 KV transformers, equipment known as “On load tap changers”. This device absorbs the fluctuations and enables supply of a steady voltage to consumers.
It has already been mentioned that Direct Current electricity was supplied to the Girgaum, Kalbadevi and Fort areas in South Bombay. An appreciable portion of the electricity distributed in 1947 was accounted for by this. An alternating Current supply had many advantages over supply at Direct Current. It is more convenient and cheaper to transmit electricity at Alternative Current through smaller cables at a higher voltage than through larger cables at a lower voltage.
In 1952, there were 25,000 consumers using D.C. A change-over to A.C. meant changing their D.C. appliances where rotation was involved : appliances such as motors, fans, lifts, refrigerators. This presented a major problem. It required a considerable amount of special effort to persuade the D.C. consumers. As an inducement, they were offered partial compensation towards the cost of changing their appliances. The total compensation paid under the scheme was Rs.50 lakhs. But the expenditure was well worthwhile, as it enabled elimination of costly and wasteful equipment used for conversion from A.C. to D.C. As a result of persistent efforts, all the 25,000 consumers, except a hard core of 17, had changed over to A.C., by March 1972.
The Municipal Corporation had a contract with the Bombay Gas Company for gas lamps for street lighting. This contract was to expire in 1962. Until then, there were about 7500 electric lamps and 7000 gas lamps on the roads of Mumbai. The Municipal Corporation then decided to change over completely to electric street lamps and simultaneously to improve the level of illumination. A crash programme was taken in hand by the B.E.S.T. in 1966. When all the gas street lamps had been converted into electric lamps in July 1968, the number of electric street lamps had increased from 7500 to 19000. On 1st July 1968, Bombay wished a sentimental farewell to gas lamps when the Mayor switched on the “Queen’s New Necklace” on Marine Drive. This was a string of the lastest type of high power, coloured-corrected, mercury vapour lamps. Marine Drive is reputed to be the best-lit road in India and one of the best-lit in the world. It is one of the spots a visitor to Mumbai does not like to miss. Now with the introduction of sodium vapour lamps, it is called as ‘Golden Necklace’.
Initially, the Undertaking used to control each lamp separately by a switch, by a man going on his rounds every evening and morning to switch them on and off. This system had several disadvantages, especially in times of emergency. To provide central control points, it would be necessary to lay hundreds of kilometre of cables at enormous cost and dig up Mumbai’s roads to lay them. Other methods had therefore to be devised. One method was to install time-switches which automatically control the street lights, depending on the time of sunrise and sunset, but the use of this device is also limited. Another method tried is that which uses photo-electric switches. These contain devices which are sensitive to light. When the natural light on the road falls to a particular level, this device actuates a switch which puts on the street lamp. When the natural light improves to a particular level, the device switches off the lamp.
A ripple control scheme for controlling street lamps from one or two central points in the city was then considered. The ripple control equipment is installed at predetermined places in the electric supply network. The equipment sends out high frequency signals over the existing underground cables. These signals are picked up by a special device installed on each lamp or a group of lamps. Thus by pressing a button at central control points one can either switch off or switch on all the street lights in the city. But this scheme was costly and involved import of much of the equipment.; hence it was decided not to consider the scheme.
At present there are over 33,000 street lighting poles and most of them are on automatic control. The automatic control of street lighting poles has got two versions. out of 93 Street Lighting Poles used for remote control for street light poles, 53 are provided with masters/slaves arrangement for efficient controlling Remaining SLP’s are provided with time switch which will switch on/off street lights at the specified timing.
In future, we are exploring the concept of pagers system for quick and efficient operation of street light poles throughout Mumbai.
Sodium-vapour lamps made an appearance in the commercial areas of Mumbai in 1980. To save on fuel and, as an alternative, considering the rising cost of oil, mercury-vapour lamps were chosen for street-lighting. Fluorescent mercury vapour lights went up in large numbers in 1982. In 1990 came “Energy Efficient” lamps and “Energy Fluorescent” lamps followed them in 1993.
And the Electricity department does not work the magic only on the roads of Mumbai; Electricity is provided by the department for various public functions and religious celebrations. As many as twenty-five years ago, the department had made special arrangements for lighting at Girgaum Chowpatty, on the occasion of the immersion of the Ganesh idols. During the years the arrangements have kept improving.
And now the devotees of Lord Ganesh venturing some distance into the sea are helped by strong shafts of light.
Prior to the success in implementing effective remote control of street lights, the Undertaking had started controlling Receiving stations from two control points. There are now 35 receiving stations in the Undertaking where the voltage is stepped down from 110KV to 11 KV, 33 KV to 11 KV, 22 KV to 11KV and 22 KV to 6.6 KV.
On an average, each receiving station supplies power to 50 substations, feeding 21,000 consumers. The efficient operation of the equipment in these Receiving Stations is therefore vital, if the consumer is to receive reliable supply at a steady voltage.
With the help of this equipment we can control the circuit breakers, tap change control gear and the voltage. The Undertaking decided in 1966 to employ the Remote Control Scheme. It was possible to immediately implement this decision, because the control cables required for this purpose had already been laid. The manufacture of the equipment was entrusted to the Indian Telephone Industries at Bangalore. The two main control points are located at the Esplanade Receiving Station and the Kingsway Receiving Station from where all the Receiving Stations are monitored and controlled. The remote Control equipment was installed in 1970 at the ‘Vidyut’ Building near the Esplanade Receiving Station and at Kingsway in 1972.
The system provided by the Indian Telephone Industries was designed on electro-mechanical relay principle. Due to this it had limitations for the speed of operation. There was no data acquisition also. These factors forced the Undertaking to keep the system to a minimum level.
In 1980 BEST replaced the Supervisory Remote Control system with micro processor based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA). Additional to SRC System SCADA functions are data acquisition, analysis and report generation.
The communication between the master control and receiving station is through underground communication cables.
To further improve the reliability and quick restoration of supply BEST is going in for microware wireless communication in the years to come. A very-high frequency radio link which was established in 1963 for quick communications is now getting outdated. This is being replaced by microwave system and cellular phones.
With the installation of this equipment, the restoration of supply when a fault develops in a system has become much more efficient and quicker. When a fault occurs in the system, a message is registered on the indicators at the central points. With the help of the links the operator at the control points can direct the field staff to quickly reach the places where the faults have occured and restore supply with the minimum delay.
Shortages are caused when the supply does not keep pace with the demand. But in spite of whatever the Undertaking might do to expand its distribution system well ahead of the demand, it has ultimately to depend on the supply from Tatas. In the early fifties for three consecutive years the monsoon had failed. The low water levels in Tata’s reservoirs, which are a source of power supply to Mumbai, had created a severe power shortage in the area. It became necessary to make alternative arrangements. Many industrial installations in the city had generators of their own to serve as a stand-by. These private owners were asked to operate their generators for their own requirements. The power thus released was utilised to serve the other consumers. This scheme came to be know as the Power Pool Scheme. The Undertaking had taken a lead and played an important role in implementing this Scheme not only in Mumbai city but also in the entire State. Later the installation of more efficient generators in the Railways’ generating station at Chola and a new generating station installed at Trombay by Tatas, considerably improved the position, and in 1961 the Power Pool Scheme was discontinued.
In the old days when plenty of space was available, nobody had perhaps ever heard the words ‘Underground Substation’ and ‘Package Type Substation’. Due to the tremendous increase in the demand for electricity in all parts of the city, the need for Substations has been increasing. The procurement of sites for Substations, especially in the congested areas in the city, presents many serious problems. In the rural areas it is customary to have pole-mounted substations. Owing to the tall buildings around, the erection of such substations is dangerous in the city. Moreover, nobody would like the idea of building such pole-mounted Substations in a city like Mumbai, from the aesthetic point of view. In 1964, on an experimental basis, 5 vault-type transformers were imported. Our experience of them, since their installation in 1967 was not encouraging.
The population of Mumbai has been growing at a fast pace. Every day, hordes of people come to the city and the city accomodates them. Problems too have been growing fast; Slums, without the basic facilities, have been coming up alongside roads. In many cases, the slums have crossed the footpath to the bus-shelter. On the one hand, there is the lovingly nursed dream of a clean and beautiful Mumbai and on the other the depressing reality of a slum. On one side there is the slogan of a green Mumbai and on the other the sad sight of a footpath swallowed up by an ugly slum. When will this stop? The question has to wait for an answer. A voice is sometimes raised against this by the white-collared gentry. Efforts are made now and then to pull down or push back the ramshackle huts. But soon enough they re-appear on the same spots. As time passes, the huts come to be regularised and the Electric Supply branch had to install a separate meter for every hut. Now the paths snaking through the huts have their lighting like the huts themselves. The sensible Mumbaites have accomodated these huts too.
During last some years more and more of Sky scrapers have been going up - and up! The sea has literally been pushed back in several places to make room for some of them. The Cuffe Parade, Nariman Point and the Backbay Reclamation areas are now virtually cement jungles. To provide electricity to these sky scrapers and this ever-widening expanse, is not a simple job. There are the new buildings and the new technology : T.V. Sets, Video and Audio Sets, mainly to entertain and the washing machine and air-conditioning to make life easier. And a variety of machines, small and big, are coming into use on a larger and larger scale. And the computer age is upon us. Naturally, the demand for electricity has rocketed; the demand from sky-scrapers particularly for computers and air-conditioners. The demand for commercial use of electricity, too, has been growing fast.
The height of buildings creates several problems in reaching electricity to them. Therefore, the need for a high pressure electricity set-up. One such set-up required for a Sky scraper is adequate for 400 residential and office buildings.
At present, the Undertaking buys its electricity from the Tata Electric Company. But if it produces its own electricity it will be more convenient, and will also effect a large saving. Its production cost will be less and the consumers demand can be met better. For this purpose the Undertaking is launching its own generation programme in the near future.
The BEST was the first organization in India to supply electricity through underground cables - and that too using the latest technology. Since 1989, the voltage of its receiving stations has been increased from 22KV to 33KV. Not only that, it built at Nariman Point that very year a receiving station of the capacity of 110 KV. In this country such a sub-station is normally outside a building and also far from a residential zone. This one is within a building. And, except for the lower floors, this building is used for private establishment. Most people working every day on the upper floors are probably not aware that below them is a power-station of the capacity of 110 KV. In 1993 the Undertaking also set up a receiving station of 110 KV at Khetwadi. This one also is inside a building.
Switch-gears : It has already been stated that the Undertaking has been in the forefront in using the latest technology in the system of electric supply. At present the Undertaking uses switch-gears of various types and using various technologies. For example, airblast, minimum oil circuit breakers, SF-6 circuit-breakers, Vacuum circuit-breakers and gas-insulated circuit-breakers. These circuit-breakers, being of the latest type, do not need supervision.
As these switch-gears occupy less space, it is possible to set them up where otherwise enough space is not available. Thus, the use of these gears has been quite profitable to the Undertaking.
Cables and their Testing : The BEST has the largest underground cable distribution system. As a matter of fact, compared to the ‘overhead’ system, the method of carrying electricity through underground cable is far more costly. But considering the congested housing and the crowded roads of Mumbai the ‘overhead’ system would be unthinkable. So, although the underground system is costly, from the viewpoint of reliability and safety, it is advantageous.
Later, the Undertaking started using upto-date technology in the cable and jointing system. There was a shortage of the copper used in the cables. The government brought control on the use of copper. Finally, as an alternative, aluminium cables were brought into use. Then came “PVC”. For high-power transmission, XLPE cable was brought into use in 1982.
The short-circuit test was employed on the underground cables. The BEST was the leading organization in testing low-pressure cables. Till 1980, high-voltage cables were tested by the “Bridge Method”. During 1980 for the testing of high-voltage cables BIECCO surge generators were purchased. And in 1990, the Undertaking got a “testing van”. equipped with full apparatus. This van is able to detect the faults in both high-voltage and low-voltage cables. This van was bought although it costs a great deal. Its main advantage is that by removing the faults in an electrical set-up in the minimum time, it enables the undertaking to provide good, dependable and prompt service to the consumers. The undertaking is using four of such “Testing Vans” at present.
Communication and Monitoring Systems : BEST is the first electric supply organization to start VHF communication and that it did in 1960. For the messages to be delivered promptly, the wireless message system was started in 1963. It has now become a simple operation to restore the electric supply by detecting the defects by going to the spot quickly in a mobile van.
For the efficient operations during the year 1967, the area was bifurcated into North and South. In 1991, the department concerned with the operations and maintenance activities was again bifurcated into four zones namely North, Central North, South and Central South. If there was any fault in the machinery, in order to spot it and to take prompt action to correct it, a “supervisory remote control” of the most modern kind was set up.
Meters and Relays : Over the years, changes have been taking place in the electric meters used. The old type of meters did not prove as efficient as they might have. Therefore, in 1994, the electricity section brought into use “electronic meters” and ‘solid state relays’. As recently as 1995, with the help of modern technology and computers, the Undertaking proposes to launch the “remote metering system”.
Computerisation in the Electricity Supply Departments : The computer is now used in a big way in the BEST Undertaking. Of, course, computerization has assumed importance in all areas of activity. Even then, it must be stated, the BEST was the first organisation in the country to issue electricity bills to consumers through the computer and also use it on a large scale. The computerised billing has been going on since 1974 and within a fixed period the bills are delivered to the consumers at their houses, unerringly. In 1988 began the use of the Personal Computer in the department. As a result the work of the Department has been going on even more efficiently. It is easier than ever now to provide prompt service to the consumers. Consumers complaints are settled without delay giving them full satisfaction.
The computer gets you the details you want in a few moments. For example, the consumer’s name, address, meter number, system number, the use to which the electricity is put - whether domestic, commercial or industrial- the pressure, the capacity of the cable etc. You don’t have to go looking for the statistics or record.
The most important stage in the development of computerization of the Electricity Supply Department is the “digitizing” with the topographical map of the entire cable network.
Once the ‘digitizing’ with the topographical map of the cable network is accomplished, there will be complete change from A to Z, one might say, in the methods of operation of the Department.
Research, development and planning have been an integral part of the supply system from the beginning. Studies are continuously undertaken to see how the new advances in the science of electro-technology can be utilised and adapted to meet the constantly increasing needs of the electricity consumer in Mumbai.

Banks in Mumbai

banks.doc Click on the link to get the list.

Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
The Central Office of the Reserve Bank has been in Mumbai since inception. The Central Office is where the Governor sits and is where policies are formulated.
Though originally privately owned, since nationalisation in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the Government of India.
The Preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as:
“…to regulate the issue of Bank Notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage.”

Central Board
The Reserve Bank’s affairs are governed by a central board of directors. The board is appointed by the Government of India in keeping with the Reserve Bank of India Act.
Appointed/nominated for a period of four years
Official Directors
Full-time : Governor and not more than four Deputy Governors
Non-Official Directors
Nominated by Government: ten Directors from various fields and one government Official
Others: four Directors - one each from four local boards
Functions : General superintendence and direction of the Bank’s affairs
Local Boards
One each for the four regions of the country in Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai and New Delhi
consist of five members each
appointed by the Central Government
for a term of four years
Functions : To advise the Central Board on local matters and to represent territorial and economic interests of local cooperative and indigenous banks; to perform such other functions as delegated by Central Board from time to time.
Financial Supervision
The Reserve Bank of India performs this function under the guidance of the Board for Financial Supervision (BFS). The Board was constituted in November 1994 as a committee of the Central Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of India.
Primary objective of BFS is to undertake consolidated supervision of the financial sector comprising commercial banks, financial institutions and non-banking finance companies.
The Board is constituted by co-opting four Directors from the Central Board as members for a term of two years and is chaired by the Governor. The Deputy Governors of the Reserve Bank are ex-officio members. One Deputy Governor, usually, the Deputy Governor in charge of banking regulation and supervision, is nominated as the Vice-Chairman of the Board.
BFS meetings
The Board is required to meet normally once every month. It considers inspection reports and other supervisory issues placed before it by the supervisory departments.
BFS through the Audit Sub-Committee also aims at upgrading the quality of the statutory audit and internal audit functions in banks and financial institutions. The audit sub-committee includes Deputy Governor as the chairman and two Directors of the Central Board as members.
The BFS oversees the functioning of Department of Banking Supervision (DBS), Department of Non-Banking Supervision (DNBS) and Financial Institutions Division (FID) and gives directions on the regulatory and supervisory issues.
Some of the initiatives taken by BFS include:
restructuring of the system of bank inspections
introduction of off-site surveillance,
strengthening of the role of statutory auditors and
strengthening of the internal defences of supervised institutions.
The Audit Sub-committee of BFS has reviewed the current system of concurrent audit, norms of empanelment and appointment of statutory auditors, the quality and coverage of statutory audit reports, and the important issue of greater transparency and disclosure in the published accounts of supervised institutions.
Current Focus
supervision of financial institutions
consolidated accounting
legal issues in bank frauds
divergence in assessments of non-performing assets and
supervisory rating model for banks.

Legal Framework
Umbrella Acts

Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934: governs the Reserve Bank functions
Banking Regulation Act, 1949: governs the financial sector
Acts governing specific functions

Public Debt Act, 1944/Government Securities Act (Proposed): Governs government debt market
Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956: Regulates government securities market
Indian Coinage Act, 1906:Governs currency and coins
Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973/Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999: Governs trade and foreign exchange market
Acts governing Banking Operations
Companies Act, 1956:Governs banks as companies
Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970/1980: Relates to nationalisation of banks
Bankers’ Books Evidence Act
Banking Secrecy Act
Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
Acts governing Individual Institutions
State Bank of India Act, 1954
The Industrial Development Bank (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 2003
The Industrial Finance Corporation (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 1993
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act
National Housing Bank Act
Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act

Main Functions
Monetary Authority:
Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy.
Objective: maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to productive sectors.
Regulator and supervisor of the financial system:
Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country’s banking and financial system functions.
Objective: maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors’ interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public.
Manager of Foreign Exchange
Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.
Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.
Issuer of currency:
Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation.
Objective: to give the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins and in good quality.
Developmental role
Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives.
Related Functions
Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments; also acts as their banker.
Banker to banks: maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks.

Has 22 regional offices, most of them in state capitals.
Training Establishments
Has six training establishments
Three, namely, College of Agricultural Banking, Bankers Training College and Reserve Bank of India Staff College are part of the Reserve Bank
Others are autonomous, such as, National Institute for Bank Management, Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research (IGIDR), Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT)
For details on training establishments, please check their websites links for which are available in Other Links.
Fully owned: National Housing Bank(NHB), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development(NABARD), Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India(DICGC), Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited(BRBNMPL)
Majority stake: State Bank of India

Complain on Mumbai Roads.

Road Monitoring Committee
Appointed by Hon’ble Bombay High Court By Order Dated 4 October 2006 Press Release for
Inviting Complaints and Suggestions from General Public
7 November 2006
Office of Road Monitoring Committee, 6th Flr, G South Ward Office Building, N M Joshi Marg (Elphinstone), MUMBAI 400 013 +912224308650 ———————————————————————————————-
By their order dated 4 October, 2006 with rteference to (PIL) SUO MOTU WRIT PETITION NO. 8 of 2005, the High Court of Bombay constituted a Road Monitoring Committee (RMC) comprising (1) Shri R.H.Mendonca (former Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, and Director General of Police, Anti Corruption Bureau, Maharashtra) Chairman, (2) Shri Gerson da Cunha (Trustee, Action for good Governance and Networking in India, (AGNI)), (3) Shri Nandkumar Salvi (former Chief Engineer, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (4) Shri Sudhir P.Badami (Civil Engineering Consultant and IIT alumnus) and (5) Shri Mihir Desai (senior Advocate, Bombay High Court)
The terms of reference of the RMC are:
To monitor the condition of the roads in the city of Greater Mumbai and Thane falling in the jurisdiction of various agencies and its state of repairs and report the same to the Officer on Special Duty appointed by the concerned agency and recommend and ask for appropriate corrective measures. The recommendations shall be implemented by the concerned agency expeditiously. If any of the recommendations of the Committee is not acceptable to the concerned agency, such agency shall apply to the Court and seek waiver from implementation of such recommendation/s.
To monitor the implementation of Standing Technical Advisory Committee (Merani Committee) report by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai.
To seek and entertain complaints and suggestions about the conditions of the roads from the general public and do the needful.
To seek, if required, expert’s advice concerning the matters regarding the conditions of roads, the materials used and the corrective measures needed. To the extent possible, the committee shall seek advice from the experts who are ready and willing to give their honorary services. In any case, the committee shall not spend more than 2 lakhs towards fee of experts in a year. If in exceptional circumstances, the expenses towards this fee are likely to exceed these limits, the RMC shall seek prior approval of the Court. The RMC reports to the High Court and is required to submit quarterly reports, before its final report by October end 2007.
The RMC, appointed as from November 1, 2006, has already met once formally and twice informally. As desired by the Court, the municipality has provided the RMC office space, an Officer on Special Duty and a small staff in the G South Ward Office, Parel.
The RMC has prepared a Complaints and Suggestions (C&S) form which the citizens could send to the Committee. It consists of a simple form on which a citizen can set down the location and nature of a problem for appropriate follow up.
Towards fulfilling this term, the RMC is inviting Complaints and Suggestions (C&S) from general public. Modes of conveying their complaints and Suggestions are as follows:
1. Written Complaints or Suggestions (C&S) could be sent at present (a) on paper, or (b) by email.
2. C&S on paper could be sent to the Office of RMC by post or courier or by hand, with address written clearly on top. (RMC office timings 10:30 AM to 5:30 PM)
The Postal Address and Email Address of RMC are given below:
Postal Address Road Monitoring Committee
6th Floor, Municipal Ward Office
G (South) Ward
N.M. Joshi Marg, (Elphinstone)
Mumbai 400 013
Email Address
In addition to C&S, upto two exemplary photographs of the damaged roads etc. of size less than 200 kb, or postcard size photo prints can also be sent if the citizen wishes to send them to RMC. The RMC will not be returning any print photographs.
4. Details of Fax and sms will be conveyed to public when these become operative.
5. Telephonic or verbal complaints or suggestions (C&S) – to the RMC may be avoided.
6. The written C&S may be given in the annexure ‘A’ format.
7. C&S would be classified into Road Related, Traffic Related or Other Public Amenity Related. As far as possible, the C&S should be related to roads and footpaths. Various kinds of complaints they could make are mentioned in the annexed list - B:
RMC seeks information from the citizens and citizen groups. Citizens /citizen groups with email address, desirous of monitoring roads in their localities may send email to with “Volunteer” typed in the subject bar of their email, giving their contact particulars.

Annexure ‘A’
Citizen’s Complaints and Suggestions
Matters related to Roads in Greater Mumbai and Thane
To Office of Road Monitoring Committee
6th Floor, G South Ward Office Building
N. M. Joshi Marg (Elphinstone), MUMBAI 400 013
Date: ________________

Example given below is Dummy Example

Road Name

K M Munshi Marg

Area Name and/or Ward
Mumbai, Babulnath, D Ward

Location identifier like Lamppost number or identifiable landmark such as petrol pump, post office, police station etc.
Northcote Orphanage, Harekrishna Temple
Lampposts BNR 28/1 to BNR 28/3

Point wise Observations: (i.e. Complaints / suggestions)

1. Road surface have potholes and rough patches at location mentioned

2. Unpainted Speed Breaker

3. Too much traffic but no footpath;

Particulars of Citizen

Harshu Kamdar

Email (if available)

Mobile No. (if available)
98216 dummy

Phone No. (if available)

Contact Address:

Vancouver Towers
K M Munshi Marg
Mumbai 400 007

Any other Complaint or Suggestion:

Annexure ‘B’
Nature of Complaints which could be refered to RMCRoads Potholes and bad patches Evenness of road surface Manhole cover Road cambers Kerb side slopes and state of muck accumulation Gutter cover Plates over valves chamber State of flooding during normal rains Locations of wet patches Location of chronic bad patches and potholes Hawker stationing on road Taxis parking at no parking kerb Improper Median, even damaged due to accident Road crossing zebra markings – faded Marker line for vehicles to halt before at road junctions Width of median at road crossings – and disable friendliness Debris, excavated material, construction related material etc including kerb stones, median blocks etc left on roads. Movable road blocks as well as the road divider railings obstruct traffic view to pedestrian crossing the roads

Footpaths Height of footpath from road kerb level Width of footpath when it is fenced on road side Width of footpath when it is not fenced on road side Creeper or any other protrusions on to the footpath from properties adjoining it. Walking surface roughness Walking surface evenness and slope Sign posts – clear headroom and rounded corners Providing of posts that physically prevent vehicles from moving onto footpaths for either driving or parking. Bus stop shelters that leave adequate space for pedestrian and wheelchair user to pass. Bus stop shelters appurtenances to clear headroom Slanted tree trunk posing danger to head Grill on ground around trees on footpaths Slopes to entrance to properties must be beginning with property line and not kerb of the road or footpath. There should be only a standard step down at property entrance. Street furniture – locations and sizes Pathways along side of roads where there are no footpaths – surface must be proper and line painted and posts embedded to prevent vehicles from using it for either parking or driving. Only trees shall be permitted in these pathways. This arrangement is to facilitate drainage. Ideally raised footpath is a must. Debris, excavated material, construction related material etc including kerb stones, median blocks etc left on footpaths.
Plant pots kept on footpaths cause obstruction to pedestrian movement.

Area-wise list of Cinema Halls in Mumbai

Click here

Malls in Mumbai

Click here to view the list

Film Actors/Actresses in Bollywood address

Sonali BendreA/203 Bldg. 43 Paradise Apts., Swami Samarth Nagar, 1st. CrossLane, Andheri (W), Bombay 400053KajolUsha Kiran, Altamount Road, Bombay 400026
Karishma Kapoor2-B/110/1201, Excellency, 4th Cross Road, LokhandwalaComplex, Andheri (W), Bombay 400058
Manisha Koirala302, Beachwood Towers, Yari Road, Versova, Andheri (W),Bombay 400061
Aishwarya Rai402, Ramlaxmi Niwas, 16th Road (Near Khar Gym), Khar (West),Bombay 400054
Urmila Matondkar93/14, Sanman, Lokhandwala Road, Andheri (W), Bombay 400058
Sushmita SenG-2, Balika Bhavan, Sector 13, RK Puram Delhi-66
Madhuri DixitVijaydeep, 3rd Floor, Iris Park, Juhu, Bombay 400049
Raveena TandonNippon Society,Juhu Church,Bombay 400049
Juhi Chawla153, Oxford Tower, Yamuna Nagar, Oshiwara Complex, Andheri(West), Bombay 4000058
Anjali JatharAnand Ashram, 1st Floor, Bldg. 22, Pandita Ramabai Road, Gamdevi, Mumbai-07
Amrita SinghBelscot Bungalows No.5, Lokhandwala Complex Andheri (W) Mumbai-53
Anu Agrawal503 Godavari, Khan Pochkhawala Rd. Worli, Mumbai-25
Aruna Irani 603, B-Gazdar Apts., Nr. Juhu Hotel, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Asha ParekhAzad Road, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Namrata Shirodkar101, Shrinathji, 15th Cross Road, Khar (W), Mumbai-52
Pooja BatraH-403, Gokul Vihar II, Thakur Complex, Kandivli (East), Mumbai-68
Pooja Bhatt601, Kyle More Apartments, Behind Mehboob Studios, Bandra (West) Mumbai-50
Priya Gill606, Nestle - B, 4th Cross Road, Lokhandwala Complex, Andheri (W), Mumbai-58
Raveena TandonNippon Society,Juhu Church,Bombay 400049
Sushmita SenG-2, Balika Bhavan, Sector 13, RK Puram Delhi-66
TabuAnukool, 2nd Floor Seven Bunglows, Versova, Andheri (W), Mumbai-58
Twinkle KhannaSamudra Mahal, Birla Lane, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Karishma Kapoor2B, Excellency, 1101, 1201, 4th Cross Road, Lokandhwala Complex, Mumbai-58
Madhuri DixitVijaydeep, 3rd Floor, Iris Park, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Mamta KulkarniD Wing, 7th Floor, 701, R.C. Complex, Opp. Panchavti, Versova, Yari Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai-061
Manisha Koirala302, Beachwood Towers, Yari Road, Versova, Andheri (West), Mumbai-61
MadhooKrishna Kutir, Sagarika Society, Juhu Tara Road, Mumbai-49
Urmila Matondkar93/14, Sangam, Lokandwala Road, Andheri (West), Mumbai-58Shahrukh Khan603 Amrit, Bandra (West), Mumbai 400050
Akshay Kumar203 A Wing, Lokhandwala Complex, Andheri(W), Bombay 400053
GovindaJai Darshan, \’A\’ Wing, Ruia Park, Juhu, Bombay 400049
Bobby DeolPlot No 22, 11th Road, JVPD Scheme, Juhu, Bombay 400049
Salman Khan3, Galaxy Apt, BJ Road, Bandstand, Bandra (W), Bombay 400050
Aamir Khan11 Bela Vista Apts.,Palli Hills, Bandra ,Bombay 400050
Atul Agnihotri6, Ashwini, Pali Mala Road, Bandra, Bombay 400050
Sunjay Dutt58 Pali Hill Bandra, Bombay 400 026
Ajay Devgan45d Malgari Road, Mumbai 400058
Anil Kapoor31 Shrinagar, 7th Road, JVPD Scheme, Mumbai 400 049
Kamal Hasan218, T.T.K. Rd, Alwarpet Chennai-600018
Sunil Shetty18-B, Prithvi Apts., Altamount Road, Bombay 400026
Sunny DeolPlot No 22, 11th Road, JVPD Scheme, Juhu, Bombay 400049
Akshay.Khanna13/C Elplaza, Little Gibs Road, Malabar Hill, Mumbai 4000026
Amrish PuriVardhan, Plot No. 45, 11th Road, Juhu Scheme, Mumbai-49
Amitabh BachchanPrateeksha, 10th Road, Juhu Scheme Mumbai-49
Arbaaz Khan602 Sea King Apartments., 6th Floor, Band Stand, Bandra (W), Mumbai-50
Anupam Kher402 Marina, Juhu Tara Road, Juhu Beach Mumbai-49
Ajay Devgan5/6, Sheetal Apartments, Gr. Flr., Opp. Chandan Cinema, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Atul Agnihotri6, Ashwini, Pali Mala Road, Bandra, Bombay 400050
Akshay Khanna13/C, Elplaza, Little Gibs Road, Malabar Hill, Mumbai-06
Aamir Khan11, Bela Vista Apts., Pali Hill, Bandra (W), Mumbai-50
Bobby DeolPlot No. 22, 11th Road, JVPD Scheme, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Chandrachur Singh6th Floor, Oakland Park, Off Lokhandwala Complex, Versova, Mumbai-61
Fardeen KhanSunshine, Jassawala Wadi, Juhu Road, Juhu, Mumbai-49
Govinda105, Jal Darshan, `A\’ Wing, Rula Park Juhu, Mumbai-49
Jugal Hansraaj14-A, Queens Apartments, Pali Hill, Bandra (West), Mumbai-50
Juhi Chawla153, Oxford Tower, Yamuna Nagar, Oshiwara Complex, Andheri (West), Bombay 4000058
Kamal Hassan218, T.T.K. Rd, Alwarpet Chennai-600018
Mukul DevKaran Apartments, 5th Floor, Yari Road, Versova, Mumbai-61
Nagarjuna29, Kasturi Rangan Road, Alwarpet, Madras-18
Emraan Hashmi 9892991635

Call centres in Mumbai

Click here to view the list

Acting School and Dance

Academy of Cinema & TV Arts Hem Villa,
3rd floor, 67 Jawahar Nagar Goregaon (W)
Mumbai 400 062
Tel: 8723560; 6231989

Acting Institute (Harish Magon) D-67,
North Mumbai Soc. Juhu,
Mumbai 400 049
Tel: 6150980

Acting Studio (Kumar Butani) 8 Palm View,
Gr. Floor L.N. Road, Dadar (Opp. Nasik Taxi Stand)
Mumbai 400 014
Tel: 4143703

Actors House (Atam Prakash) Bldg. No.40,
402-A Manish Nagar, 4 Bunglows Andheri (W)
Mumbai 400 053
Tel: 6239079 6230103 Pager: 9628 213087

Actors Workshop (Anil Chowdhury) Gulistan-E-Hind,
10th Road Juhu
Mumbai 400 049
Tel: 6205420

Asha Chandra C/6 Sangeeta Apt,
Behind Lido Cinema Juhu Road
Mumbai 400 049
Tel: 6486545 6496660

Ashok Kumar’s Academy of Dramatic Arts (Preeti Gangoly)
47 Union Park Chembur
Mumbai 400 071
Tel: 556 2649

Ashok Academy of Model Line Empire Building,
2nd floor Apna Ghar Lokhandwala Complex
Andheri(W) Mumbai 400 053
Telefax: 6343715

Chandra Academy of Model Line 20 Rembrant,
Pali Hill Bandra
Mumbai 400 050
Tel: 6049641

Cine Acting Academy 354 Jawahar Nagar,
Road No.19 Goregaon (W)
Mumbai 400 062
Tel: 8739286

Daisy Irani’s Film Institut 682, Roop Kala,
16th Road Khar (W), Behind Khar Gymkhana
Mumbai 400 052
Tel: 6042886

Filmalaya Acting School Filmalaya Studios
Amboli Andheri
Mumbai 400 058
Tel: 6249544, 6249545

Kanha Acting Classes (Kumar Kanha)
Hafkine Comp. D-32 Opp. Tata Hospital Parel (E)
Mumbai 400 012 Tel: 4126031

Kishore Namit Kapoor B-303,
Sun Swept Lokhandwala Andheri (W)
Mumbai 400 053
Tel: 6261626, 6260900

Madhumati Academy of Film Acting & Dance 202,
Trinton Green Fields Juhu
Mumbai 400 049
Tel: 6204647

Nalini Chonkar’s B-2 Nutan Ganotri 15
V.D. Road Andheri (W)
Mumbai 400 053
Tel: 6267042

P. L. Raj Dance Classes 153-B Debonair,
F-103 V.S. Marg Mahim
Mumbai 400 016
Tel: 4456683, 4451719

Rifract 18 Noor Mahal 135/137
Sir Ratan Tata Road, Tardeo,
Mumbai 400 034

Roshan Taneja Actor Studio 102,
Horizon Apt., 9th Road Juhu
Mumbai 400 049
Tel: 6200605

Sameer Dance Academy 90 Aram Nagar-1,
Near Welfare School 7 Bunglows, Andheri (W)
Mumbai 400 061
Tel: 6266045, 6320490

Xaviers Institute of Communication
St. Xaviers College Mahanagarpalika Marg
Mumbai 400 001
Tel: 2621366, 2621639

List of stations Mumbai (western, central, harbour, Diwa-Vasai Road Corridor)

Western line
Within Greater Mumbai: Churchgate, Marine Lines, Charni Road, Grant Road, Mumbai Central, Mahalaxmi, Lower Parel, Elphinstone Road, Dadar, Matunga Road, Mahim, Bandra, Khar Road, Santacruz, Vile Parle, Andheri, Jogeshwari, Goregaon, Malad, Kandivali, Borivali, Dahisar.

Outside Greater Mumbai: Mira Road, Bhayandar, Naigaon, Vasai Road, Nala Sopara, Virar, Vaitarna, Saphale, Kelve Road, Palghar, Umroli, Boisar, Vangaon, Dahanu Road

Central (Main) line
Within Greater Mumbai: Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) (formerly, Victoria Terminus (VT), Masjid Bunder, Sandhurst Road, Byculla, or Bhaykhala, Chinchpokli, Currey Road, Parel, Dadar, Matunga, Sion (Sheev), Kurla, Vidyavihar, Ghatkopar, Vikhroli, Kanjurmarg, Bhandup, Nahur, Mulund

Outside Greater Mumbai: Thane, Kalwa, Mumbra, Diwa, Dombivli, Thakurli, Kalyan

Kalyan, Thane, Dadar are important stops for outstation trains.

At Kalyan, the route splits up into two sections.

1. Karjat (100 km from CST) 2. Kasara

Kalyan, Vitthalwadi, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath, Badlapur, Vangani, Shelu, Neral, Bhivpuri Road, Karjat, Palasdari, Kelavli, Dolavli, Lowjee, Khopoli
Kalyan, Shahad, Ambivli, Titwala, Khadavli, Vasind, Asangaon, Atgaon, Khardi, Kasara

Harbour line
Within Greater Mumbai: Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) (formerly, Victoria Terminus (VT), Masjid, Sandhurst Road, Dockyard Road, Reay Road, Cotton Green, Sewri, Wadala road

Wadala road, King’s Circle, Mahim, Bandra, Khar Road, Santacruz, Vile Parle, Andheri
Wadala road, Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar, Chunabhatti, Kurla,Tilak Nagar, Chembur, Govandi, Mankhurd
Within Navi Mumbai:

Vashi, Sanpada, Juinagar, Nerul, Seawoods, Belapur, Khargar, Mansarovar, Khandeshwar, Panvel
Vashi, Sanpada, Turbhe, Kopar Khairane, Ghansoli, Airoli, Thane.

Diwa-Vasai Road Corridor
Diwa, Dombivli, Bhiwandi, Kharbav, Kaman, Vasai Road

Navi Mumbai

Navi Mumbai (Marathi: नवी मुंबई) (erstwhile: New Bombay) is a satellite twin of the city of Mumbai, India. It is the largest planned new city in the world, with an area of 344 km². Navi Mumbai lies on the mainland on the eastern seaboard of the Thane Creek. The city limits stretch from Airoli near Thane in the north, to Uran in the south. The length of the city is almost the same as Mumbai. The Vashi and Airoli Bridges connect Navi Mumbai to Mumbai. There is now a new Railway link from Vashi to Thane via Airoli, Ghansoli, and Kopar Khairane
The region was part of the kingdom of Ashoka and then various Hindu rulers of the Silhara dynasty until 1343, when it was annexed by the kingdom of Gujarat. In 1534, the Portuguese took the region from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. It remained in their hands until 1661, when it was ceded as the dowry of Catherine de Braganza to Charles II of England. He, in turn, leased it to the British East India Company in 1668 for £10 per annum.
The region remained undeveloped until the 1970s when the real estate boom began.

Planned city
The first post-independence development plan for Bombay, formulated by the Mayer-Modak Committee in 1948, suggested satellite towns to Mumbai (then Bombay).Ten years later, the Barve committee suggested the formation of a township on the mainland across the Thane Creek to decongest Bombay.One of its major recommendations was that a rail-cum-road bridge be built across the Thane Creek to connect peninsular Bombay with the mainland. The bridge accelerated development across the Creek, relieving pressure on the city’s railways and roadways, and attracted industrial and residential concentrations eastward to the mainland.
Barve Group recommendations were accepted by Government of Maharashtra. A new committee chaired by Prof. D.R. Gadgil, then Director of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune in March, 1965 was asked to form broad principles of regional planning. After these recommmendations and recommendations from Panvel and Pune.The regional planning board constituted in June 1967 under the chairmanship of an ICS officer L.G. Rajwade recommendated new metro-centre or New Bombay now called Navi Mumbai across the creek.This proposal was accepted by the BMC. On 17th March 1970 under the Indian Companies Act, 1956 CIDCO was incorporated. Its sole purpose was to plan, develop and maintain the township of Navi Mumbai. Privately owned land covering 86 villages and measuring 15,954 ha. within the present limits of Navi Mumbai and further villages, measuring 2,870 ha were acquired the Government of Maharashtra.

Vashi Bridge across Thane creek.
In 1973 the Vashi Bridge was opened to the public for residents of Vashi , Belapur and Nerul . Sion- Panvel highway was built to reduce the time taken to travel from Sion to Panvel. Initally the response to the new city was low, major changes took place only after 1990 with the commissioning of the wholesale agricultural produce market at Vashi and the construction of a commuter railway line from Mankhurd to Vashi in May 1992. These developments caused a sudden growth in economic activities and population in Navi Mumbai.
By the end of the 1990s, the planning authority of Navi Mumbai initiated private participation in the developmental activity of Navi Mumbai
Some of the old and more populated nodes are Airoli, Vashi, Nerul and Belapur. Some of the more recent Node developments include Kharghar, New Panvel.
A couple of recent developments include a 1.5 mile long Airoli Bridge over the Thane creek between Airoli and Mulund - an eastern suburb of Mumbai city.

The new city dawns

CIDCO was formed on 17th March, 1971 and was given the mandate of converting about 344 km². of marshy land lying between village Dighe in Thane district and Kalundre village of Raigad district into a new city. It consisted of 150 km creek line of the total 720 km of the Konkan coast. The villagers under this area lived a calm life much different from the life in the neighbouring city of Mumbai (then called Bombay). CIDCO carved out 14 nodes - small townships - of the land with a view to facilitate comprehensive development and to give it an identity of new city. These nodes are named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kalamboli, Jui Kamothe, New Panvel, Ulwe, Pushpak and Dronagiri. CIDCO acquired 193.94 km² land of which 141.05 km² was private land, including about 22.92 km² salt-pan land and 52.89 km² government land. By the year 2000 CIDCO had developed about 117.60 km² of land. Of this land 54.45 km² is saleable under various land uses. CIDCO has sold about 21.90 km² leaving a balance land for sale about 32.58 km² under various land uses.


When Navi Mumbai was created in 1970’s CIDCO was the only authority that looked after the develpoment and maintance of the city. CIDCO prepared developmental plan for Navi Mumbai covering 95 villages from Thane and Raigad district. For the first ten years of the project CIDCO acted as the planning and administrative body, as well as the developer and builder for the project. Tax on property , land , commercial , water were payable to CIDCO. The 14 nodes which CIDCO created where named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kalamboli, Kamothe, New Panvel, Ulwe, Pushpak and Dronagiri. Each of the nodes is divided into groups. These groups are blocks of one or more sector in each of the node. Initally only Vashi , Nerul , CBD Belapur , Airoli were developed buy CIDCO and build infracture for Housing , School, community centre roads. But after the arrival of Harbour Line in 1990’s there was increrase in population . CIDCO shifted its develpoment plan to nodes like Kharghar, New Panvel,Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane. In its new development plan CIDCO Land was allocated lands to builders for housing according to the drawn plane . CIDCO only provided basic infra structure like roads , water , electricty and these nodes were developed mostly by private builders according to CICCO plan.


Nodes of Navi Mumbai under NMMC
In 1991 Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) was created for maintaning some of the developed nodes of Navi Mumbaiand local self-government started functioning from 1st January 1992,.NMMC was handed 9 of the 25 nodes of the Navi Mumbai project area for its jurisdiction . The 9 nodes are - Belapur , Nerul, Vashi ,Turbhe, Koperkhairane, Ghansoli, Airoli, Digha, Dahisar [1].
The muncipal corporation is headed by Municipal commissioner and a elected Mayor There are 64 electoral wards in Navi Mumbai. A corporator is elected in each of the wards.All the nodes under muncipal corporation come under Thane District. However, CIDCO, as a Planning Authority has a right on the open plots in these five nodes.
The newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai on the south side like Kharghar, New Panvel ,Kalamboli, New Panvel are still maintained by CIDCO and dont come under NMMC jurisdiction. These nodes i.e nodes beyond CBD Belapur (Belpada) come under Raigad Districtand fall under Panvel Municipal Council.
Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport Undertaking or NMMT Undertaking is the local transport service operated by the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation in the city of Navi Mumbai and adjoining areas; Dombivli, Badlapur, Uran, Panvel, Thane , Kalyan and Mulund .

Marathi,the official language of the state of Maharashtra,is extensively spoken.Navi Mumbai has a multilingual population. A common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya Hindi – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Indian English and some invented colloquial words. English is also extensively spoken, and is the principal language of the city’s white collar workforce.

Physical characteristics
Navi Mumbai spreads over parts of two districts of Maharashtra; Thane and Raigad. The region is hilly in some parts. Parts of the region are also protected wetlands. Unlike its bigger neighbour, the city is sparsely populated. Navi Mumbai is a part of South Konkan coast line. This coastal line joins Sahyadri mountain ranges in South and 50 to 100 m high hills in East.Thus the Navi Mumbai area lies between mountain ranges and a coast line. Its coordinates are between Latitude 19.5’ and 19.15’, Longitude 72.55’ and 73.5’

Along east, there are small hills running in north-south direction. The lands forms part of Konkan Region. The narrow belt of land starts at Dighe in north and ends at Kalundre in south. It is 25.60 km² in area, 20 km long and about 2.0 km wide.

The rock formation in the region are derived mainly from Deccan Basalt and also from granites, gneissus and laterite. The gently sloping coastal low lands are observed in patches and are covered with moderately shallow to deep soils, mostly lateritic in nature, sometimes oxidised to yellow marrum.

To part of Western Konkan coast is a narrow coastal strip along the western part of Sahyadris. It is bound on the East side by hillocks of 50 to 200 m height and on the west side by Thane creek.

This area has sub-tropical monsoonic climate of humid-perhumid to semiarid and subhumid type. Overall climate is equable with high rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures.

The mean annual temperature ranges from 25 to 28 °C. The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month in this area varies from 30 to 33 °C in April-May while mean minimum temperature of coldest month varies from 16 to 20 °C. Extremes of temperatures, like 38 to 39 °C in summer and 11 to 14 °C in winter, may be experienced for a day or two in respective season.

The rainy season is mostly confined to south-west monsoon with 80% of the rainfall received during June to October (60 to 70 days). This area, on an average, receives 2500 to 3500 mm rainfall.

The area has marine humid-perhumid climate with more humidity and less diumal variations. Relative humidity varies from 41 to 97%. Driest days being in winter and wettest ones experienced in July.

Features such a presence of large water body (the creek), presence of hill ridges etc. influence the local wind patterns to some extent. No significant micro-climatic variation is noticeable in the region.

The soils of this region are highly saline in the vicinity of creeks and non-saline at other places. They are calcareous, neutral to alkaline in reaction (pH 7.5 to 8.5), clayey, with high amount of bases and have high water holding capacity (200-250 mm/m). The soils located on moderately sloping residual hills are lateritic in nature and show intensively leached surfaces. They are loamy and slight to moderately acidic (pH 5-6.5) with moderate base status (< id="Land_use" name="Land_use">
Land use
The land was used to produce paddy during rainy season. Some mango and coconut orchards and limited vegetable cultivation was also practised by locals. Those with well-irrigation facility used to go for legumes like ‘tur’ and ‘beans’. With urbanisation, however, all agriculture activities in Navi Mumbai have almost ceased to exist, except in easternmost part. Fish, crabs and prawns were common products from the creek, though the quantities of each were not significant. Surplus from domestic consumption was sold in Thane and Belapur markets. With advent of industries in the region, and with consequent deterioration of water quality, these markets were lost.

As of 2001 India censusGRIndia, Navi Mumbai had a population of 703,947. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Navi Mumbai has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 67%. In Navi Mumbai, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

The most common transportation is the red NMMT buses and suburban trains. NMMT buses are similar to the BEST buses except that they are operated by NMMC. Auto rickshaws and Taxis are also a popular mode of transport. Mumbai’s suburban railway network also covers most of the populated region of the city. The most important external railway station of this region are Vashi, Belapur CBD and Panvel. The stations are planned as a major railway junction. Most trains plying on the Konkan Railway stop at Panvel so that those passengers destined to reach Mumbai may get the local trains. These trains bypass the island city altogether. Future plans include linking the station to Pune to cut travel time between Mumbai and Pune.With the Mulund-Airoli link now the fastest way of getting to the central could be via NMMT or BEST buses to Mulund.
Thane-Vashi corridor on Harbour Line of the Central Railway was commissioned on 9th November 2004. The trains will ply along a 18.5 km route through Vashi, Sanpada, Turbhe, Kopar Khairne, Ghansoli, Rabale and Airoli, to Thane. Work in underway to lay an additional pair of tracks between Thane and Kurla - the 5th and 6th corridor for a ring railway route: Thane-Kurla-Vashi-Thane.
If you are new to Mumbai, and wish to travel to any part of Navi Mumbai , then just make sure that you hop into a BEST bus having 500 series. Example - BEST Route 505 starts from C.B.D in Navi Mumbai and ends at Bandra in Mumbai, vice versa. Others routes like 506, 507, 511, 512 etc. take commuters from Nerul in Navi Mumbai to Mumbai and back.
The Palm Beach Marg is a 10 Km long 6 lane road the state-of-the-art expressway that connects Vashi to Belapur running parallel to the Thane creek


Vashi station complex
Most of software companies in Maharashtra have their offices in Navi Mumbai. The government of Maharashtra has also setup software parks to cater to the growing demand. Many large institutions also have their offices here. The Reliance group of industries have a major presence (DAKC) in Kopar Khairane and Mahape. Other prominent companies include Digit Computer Magazine. As a part of long term planning, major commodity markets have begun moving from the heart of Mumbai city to Navi Mumbai. Kalamboli (another node in Navi Mumbai) is home to a major steel market. Vashi has the fresh fruits and vegetables market. One of the important business landmarks is the shipping port of JNPT (stands for Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust) in Nhava Sheva - Dronagiri node. There are firm yet undeveloped plans to build an airport in Navi Mumbai.
The International Infotech Park at Vashi station complex houses many international IT companies
The New Millennium City near Mahape forms a major part of the Knowledge Corridor that spans Mumbai and Pune [2]. The head office of Reliance Infocom - Dhirubhai Ambani Knowledge City is situtated opposite to Koparkhairane station .The IT companies in Navi Mumbai include Wipro Ltd, CMC, Tata Consultancy Services, Aptech, Track Mail, ICICI Infotech and PCS which have their office on Thane Belapur Road.

Navi Mumbai is served by TCSNavi Mumbai News Pvt. Ltd., a local cable television channel based in Vashi [1] while Marathi & Hindi newschannels are popular. The national television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels - Doordarshan and Sahyadri.Marathi channel like DD-Sahyadri, Zee_Marathi and ETV-Marathi along with other Hindi channels are popular in Mumbai.Over 100 channels are received by household through cable. Boradband , DTH is yet to yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.
Marathi newspapers like Maharashtra Times,Loksatta,Saamna,Sakal are important dailies alongwith several English counterparts like Times of India and Indian express. Several weekly newspapers with varying degrees of local focus keep residents informed of events in the node and/or the city, including:
In New Bombay
The New Mumbai Street (started in 2003)
The Twin City Times
Vashi Times (the first English weekly of the city)
21st Century Commercial (the first business news weekly of the city)
Khargar Times
Major Marathi and English city newspapers publish weekly local supplements, whilst DNA and Times of India publishes a localized version of its daily for distribution in the city.
Websites like Vashi2Panvel [2], provide an online source of news about the city.

Navi Mumbai has near uninterrupted power supply from various sources. The city has numerous flyovers, broad roads, and parking lots. Housing here is much cheaper than Bombay. The main problem facing the residents is the poor connectivity with Bombay with only two road links between the two cities, and a single rail line. Hovercraft service from Vashi to Colaba and C.B.D to Colaba had started , but just did not pick up due to high cost of ticket and maintenance.

Law and Order
As the population and prosperity of the city rose through the years, it began to attract more criminal activity. Navi Mumbai’s crime count jumped up from 2,763 in 2003 to 3,571 in 2004. Criminal activities in Navi Mumbai are usually on the scale of chain/cellphone snatchings, vehicle thefts and burglaries involving unoccupied houses, but murder and armed robbery takes place in significant numbers [3]. Nerul is especially plagued by robbery [4]. Shops and housing colonies often hire private security guards, as the police force is often overstretched [5]. Businesses are expected to shut shop by 10pm. The Mumbai underworld has also begun to take notice of the city [6], targeting the inceasingly thriving businesses of cable operators, builders and real estate developers for extortion.

With the best education opportunities available, Navi Mumbai is fast-emerging as the educational capital of India. Each node is self-sufficient in quality education facilities.About 22.5 per cent of the total population is considered to be school-going and adequate provision is made to absorb it in each node. The city has schools that offer various syllabi - Maharashtra State SSC board, all-India Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards.
Besides the regular arts and science colleges, there are higher education institutions that provide courses in engineering, medicine, architecture ,catering and management. Students from adjoining towns and suburbs come to Navi Mumbai in their quest for quality education. All collegs and school are affiliated to the University of Mumbai.
Akbar Peerbhoy College of Education - Vashi
Apeejay School - Nerul
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Architecture - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering- CBD Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering (BVCOE) - Navi Mumbai
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College Of Pharmacy - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Management Studies and Research - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Pharmacy - Belapur
Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Technology - Belapur
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing - Kharghar
D.A.V Public School- Airoli, Navi Mumbai
D.A.V Public School- Airoli, Navi Mumbai
Datta Meghe College of Engineering - Airoli
Delhi Public School - Nerul
Fr. Agnel Industrial Training Institute - Vashi
Fr.Agnel Multipurpose School (English & Marathi Medium)- Vashi
Fr. Agnel Multipurpose Junior College - Vashi
Fr. Agnel Polytechnic - Vashi
Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues Institute of Technology- Vashi
Indian Burns Research Hospital -[Airoli
Institute of Business Studies & Research – CBD Belapur
Institute of Technology & Management - Kharghar
Lokmanya Tilak College Of Engineering (LTCOE) - Navi Mumbai
Mahatma School of Academics and Sport- New Panvel
Mahtma Gandhi Mission college of Engineering & Technology - Kalamboli
Mahatma Gandhi missions Medical College - Kalamboli
National Institute of Fashion Technology - Kharghar
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Architecture - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Occupational Therapy - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College & Hospital - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics- Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Hotel Management & Catering Technology -[Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Management Studies - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Post-Graduate Studies in Dental Surgery - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College University of Lancashire School Of Biomedical Sciences - Nerul
Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Polytechnic - Nerul
Pillai’s College of Architecture (PiCA) - New Panvel
Pillai’s College of Arts, Science and Commerce - New Panvel
Pillai’s Institute of Information Technology Engineering, Media Studies & Research - New Panvel
Pillai’s Institute of Management Studies & Research (PIMSR) - New Panvel
Pillai’s Polytechnic - New Panvel
Pillai’s Research Institute - New Panvel
Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology - Nerul
Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s Modern College - Vashi
Ryan International School - Kharghar
Sacred Heart High School - Vashi
Smt. Indira College of Engineering - Kopar Khairane
South Indian Education Society Centre for Excellence in Management Research & Development - Nerul
South Indian Education Society College of Arts,Science& Commerce - Nerul
South Indian Education Society College of Management Studies - Nerul
South Indian Education Society Institute of Environment Management - Nerul
South Indian Education Society Graduate School of Technology(SIESGST) - Nerul
South Indian Education Society School of Packaging - Nerul
Terna Nursing College - Nerul
Terna Physiotherapy College - Nerul
Terna Polytechnic - Kopar Khairne
Terna Public Charitable Trust Engineering College - Nerul
Terna Public Charitable Trust Medical College - Nerul
Training Ship Chanakya - Nerul
Vidyadhiraja Collage of Physical Education & Research - New Panvel


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